Africa - Organised Crime Index

About the Index

The ENACT Organised Crime Index is a multi-dimensional tool that measures both the level of countries’ criminality and their resilience to organised crime.

The objective of the Index is to provide guidance to policymakers and continental regional bodies to prioritise their interventions on the basis of a holistic assessment of where vulnerabilities lie, and provide them with the means to measure the efficacy of their interventions. Developed over a two-year period, the Index draws from both quantitative and qualitative sources, and is underpinned by over 200 expert assessments. The ENACT programme aims to encourage international and regional communities to move away from a solely criminal-justice-led response to organised crime, and towards a more comprehensive package of policies that can help mitigate the impact of organised crime, build local resilience and limit incentives for market participants. For more information about ENACT, visit


The European Union (EU) has placed security in Africa at the forefront of its international agenda, notably though its Pan-African Programme – the first programme of its kind to centre on development and cooperation, and covering Africa as a whole. One project under the Pan-African Programme is ENACT: Enhancing Africa’s capacity to respond more effectively to transnational organised crime. ENACT works to mitigate the impact of transnational organised crime (TOC) in Africa on development, governance, security and the rule of law. It achieves this in two ways: firstly, by building knowledge and offering evidence-based analysis of TOC in Africa, which will inform policy and enhance cooperation at the regional and continental level. Secondly, ENACT builds skills and capacity among key African stakeholders to better respond to transnational organised crime and mitigate its impact.

Index scores


The Index measures criminality and resilience for each country on a scale of 1 to 10. Countries’ criminality scores are made up of the average scores of ten criminal markets and four criminal actor types. Criminal market scores consider the scope, scale, value and reach (i.e. non-monetary impact) of each illicit economy. Criminal actor scores consider the structure, control and influence of each criminal actor type. The higher the criminality score a country has, the more severe its criminality conditions are.

Resilience scores are created by taking the average of 12 resilience indicators. These indicators represent a range of areas from which organised-crime response measures are developed – from politics and criminal justice, to economics and social fields. Unlike criminality, the higher the resilience score a country has, the more effective its response measures are to organised crime.

All Index scores have gone through extensive rounds of review and verification by experts on organised crime and by geographic experts, to ensure these numbers make sense in the real-world context in order to offer users the means to develop informed policies to counter organised crime.

Africa overall score for



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More about the Rankings

While organised crime and responses differ from country to country, organised crime is nevertheless a global problem. Under both the criminality and resilience components of the Index, countries are ranked based on their scores in order to offer users the option for comparative analysis across the African continent. Above all, country rankings are meant to start a conversation among policymakers and regional bodies, encouraging them to delve deeper into how and why organised crime affects their respective countries, and learn from one another in order to develop effective resilience strategies.

Country Profiles

Detailed data about the 54 African countries

In addition to the scores and rankings, the Organised Crime Index website allows users to explore country profiles that explain the context behind each country’s scores. Country profiles outline scores for each component (i.e. criminality and resilience), subcomponent (i.e. criminal markets and criminal actors) and indicators. The country profiles also provide background information on each specific country context, and highlight key trends based on expert assessments.

Pyramid height

The criminal actors score is represented by the Pyramid height on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Pyramid width

The criminal markets score is represented by the Pyramid base size on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Panel height

The resilience score is represented by the Panel height which can be identified by the side of the Panel.

Data Explorer

Make your own comparisons

The Organised Crime Index offers a holistic framework of a country’s overall relationship to organised crime. At the same time, its subcomponents and indicators allow users to disaggregate such information and determine correlations with various impact areas in any given country and/or region. Policymakers and other users are able to compare data geographically, substantively and, with future iterations of the Index, temporally, so that they can identify key trends.

Made by people


The Organised Crime Index was developed by a core team at the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime: Laura Adal, Nina Kaysser, Tuesday Reitano, Mark Shaw and Lyes Tagziria. In the process of developing this pilot tool, the team drew on the support and expertise of over 200 people, and would like to express their sincere gratitude to colleagues, experts, reviewers and research assistants for their tireless efforts to build a comprehensive and informative knowledge-sharing tool. Throughout a two-year period, a range of experiences and informed opinions were exchanged, and lessons learned in order to develop the first organised crime index of its kind. It is with great hope that the tool allows for greater buy-in and collaboration in future iterations to build a larger evidence base from which stakeholders may draw in order to develop effective responses and ultimately successfully combat organised crime both in Africa and beyond.

Final opinions, findings and conclusions do not necessarily constitute or imply expert endorsements, nor do they necessarily represent their respective institutions.

enact experts

Agnes Ebo’o
Alexander Bish
Anne-Marie Hildson
Arezo Malakooti
Chiara Fall
Ciara Aucoin
Deo Gumba
Eric Pelser
Iris Oustinoff
Jacqueline Cochrane
Jakkie Cilliers
Jason Eligh
Jihane Ben Yahia
John Sellar
Karl Lagerstadt
Kristina Amerhauser
Laura Adal
Lyes Tagziria
Marcena Hunter
Maria Urbas
Mark Micallef
Mark Shaw
Martin Ewi
Matt Herbert
Monique de Graaff
Mouhamadou Kane
Nelson Alusala
Nina Kaysser
Ottilia A. Maunganidze
Peter Gastrow
Raouf Farrah
Rene Oyono
Richard Chelin
Rim Dhaouadi
Robin Cartwright
Rupert Horsely
Simone Haysom
Timothy Walker
Tuesday Reitano
William Assanvo
Zachary Donnenfeld

research Assistants

Adriana Reinecke
Aldo Liga 
Aleksandra Hall
Alexander Scragg
Alexandra Smidman
Ali Zoubeidi
Anita Gossmann
Annabelle Hahn
Anton MacFadyen
Arda Akartuna 
Beatriz Andrea Quintero Caceres
Bram Van Wiele
Claudia Wallner
Clemence Bigot
Daniela Sota Valdivia
Desirée Brandão
Edona Musliu 
Fabio Seferi
Faith Tunde-Yara
Fakhri Mansour
Hannah Wallace
Harriet Cartwright 
Heike Koehler 
Ida-Maria Herdieckerhoff
Idriss Boumehdi
Intan Hadidinata
Izabella Vieira Lopes
Jack Moss
Jacob Thaler
James Adebayo
Jan Eijking
Joritse Onuwaje 
Joy Teddy-Jimoh
Julius Kaka
Kosyo Ivanov
Kristen Olver
Laura Brody
Laura Telenta 
Leiysa Byrne
Lia Johansen
Luisa Maria Acosta
Maria Antonia Mier Portillo
Maria Galanakis
Mariana Stark
Matthew Spivack
Michael McLaggan
Mildred Rodríguez Bentron
Milica Radovic
Mohamad Sheikh
Nanar Hawach
Nicole Helou
Nikki Ramos
Olga Biegus
Olivia Baneth
Rachel Mackenna
Rahel Kibru 
Ross Field
Sara Canto
Stella Guesnet
Susanna J Deetlefs
Susan Knifed
Teresa Iglesias
Wilson Nderitu
Xavier Tayupanta

external experts

Technical reference group

David Hammond
The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP)
Fiona Underwood
Statistical consultant
Jan Hofmeyr
Jeremy McDermott
InSight Crime
Jonathan Moyer
University of Denver
Sara Batmanglich
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Yannick Vuylsteke
Mo Ibrahim Foundation

Capetown foundational meeting

Ariane De Palacio
International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (CIPC)
Charles Goredema
ISECA Informed Solutions to Economic Crime in Africa
Christopher Karlsson
Small Arms Survey
Marija Atanaskova
The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI)
Markus Burgener
Patricio R. Estévez-Soto
University College London: Organised Crime Research Network
Raymond Baker
Global Financial Integrity (GFI)
Renata Giannini
Igarapé Institute
Siri Bjune
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

Expert scorers/verifiers

Abdoulaye Diallo
Manager of the National Press Centre in Burkina Faso.
Abel Abate Demissie
Political Analyst, Ethiopia and the Horn
Abigail Gyimah
Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana
Adel Hmaizia
Chatham House
Akizi-Egnim Akala
Alan Martin
Sechaba Consulting
Alastair Nelson
Albert Mbatiem
University of Dschang, Cameroon
Amanda Rude
Independent consultant
Andreia Teixeira
Institute for Security Studies
Axel Klein
ACK Consultants
Brad Brooks-Rubin
Global Director, Development and Beneficiation, for the Gemological Institute of America
Cheikh Toure
Christopher Horwood
Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
Claire Adionyi
Strathmore University
Claudia Seymour
Research Associate at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva and
Clement Sefa-Nyarko
Research, Evaluation and Learning Manager, Participatory Development Associates, Accra-Ghana
Dalaya Ashenafi
Economic Transformation and Youth, Ethiopian Program Interlocutor-Big Win Philanthropy, Ethiopia
David Izadifar
Regional Criminal Information Advisor, UNODC
Dennis Jjuuko
Associate at the Uganda Council on Foreign Relations, Uganda
Dr Derica Lambrechts
Lecturer in Organised crime at Stellenbosch University
Dr Giulia Cimini
Scholar and Researcher in democratic transitions in Tunisia and Morocco
Dr. Jimam Lar
University of Jos, Nigeria
Dr John Endres
Dr Luz-Helena Hanauer
International economic law consultant
Dr Sami Ben Sassi
Lecturer of Managerial Economics, Birmingham Business School
Dr Terence McNamee
Emilie Serralta
Director, Serralta Consulting
Emma Senge Wobuke
Erica Marsh
Security Analyst
Etannibi Alemika
University of Jos, Nigeria
Farai Maguwu
Director, Center for Natural Resource Governance
Fatma Ali
Associate Professor – United States International University
Francesco Strazzari
Research fellow, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies
Gabriela Flores Zavala
Independent Consultant
George Sunguh
Independent consultant – Sea port
Gilles Yabi
Researcher, founder of Wathi of Wathi thank Tank
Graeme MacFadyen
Poseidon Consultants
Henri-Lucien Ticky
CEMAC National representation in Cameroon
Jackson Miller
Independent consultant
Jean Kambuni
Eastern Africa Resilience Innovation Hub/TCH
Jens Pedersen
John Coyne
Australian Strategic Policy Institute’s Border Security Program.
Julian Rademeyer
Katharine Petrich
Visiting Researcher in the National Security Affairs department at Naval Postgraduate School
Ken Opala
Kwesi Aning
Luca Raineri
Research fellow, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies
Luc Damiba Youlouka
CENOZO Investigative Reporting in West Africa
Luis Franceschi
Dean – Starthmore University
Mathias Shipeta
Haki Africa (on behalf of Hussein Khalid)
Matthias Novak
Small Arms Survey
Meressa Kahsu
Senior Researcher and Training Coordinator, Peace Operation and Peacebuilding, ISS
Minas Feseha
Programme Director, Non-State Actors Coalition, (NSAC) and Consultant, African Peace and Security Programme (APSP), Ethiopa
Mohammed Akunjee
Mohamed Haji Abdullahi
University of Oxford
Moussa Aksar
Editor of L’évènement
Muteru Ndumo (Alfred)
King's College London
Naji Abou-Khalil
NORIA Research
Neil Carrier
University of Bristol
Nick Lewis OBE
Standard Chartered
Ntibinyane Ntibinyane
Investigative journalist
Ntono Tsimi Germain
University of Yaounde
Olufemi Balogun
Manager, Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Learning, LEAP Africa, Nigeria
Peter Tinti
Pierre Fruhling
ENACT Advisory Board member
Piers Pigou
Crisis Group - Southern Africa
Itobiantsoa Valimbavaka (Riana)
Rodrigo Avila
Rapporteur of the Public Security and Drug Enforcement Committee
Ruth Bolline Aluoch
"Research and Training, International Peace Support Training Centre, Nairobi-Kenya
Ruth Gursch-Adam
Austrian Institute for European and Security Policy
Sam Ratner
Columbia University
Samantha McCormack
Sasha Jesperson
Aktis’ Transnational Challenges Practice
Singo Mwachofi
Independent consultant – East and Great Lakes region
Solomon Zebede
Suliman Baldo
Rift Valley fellows
Terence McNamee
Thierry Vircoulon
French Institute for International Affairs
Thomas P. Wolf
Tomas Maule
Researcher / Investigator
Uta Staschewski
Head – HSF East Africa
Zoneziwoh Mbondgulo-Wondieh
Women for a Change (Wfac), Cameroon