Africa - Organised Crime Index

About the Index

The ENACT Organised Crime Index is a multi-dimensional tool that measures both the level of countries’ criminality and their resilience to organised crime.

The objective of the Index is to provide guidance to policymakers and continental regional bodies to prioritise their interventions on the basis of a holistic assessment of where vulnerabilities lie, and provide them with the means to measure the efficacy of their interventions. Developed over a two-year period, the Index draws from both quantitative and qualitative sources, and is underpinned by over 200 expert assessments. The ENACT programme aims to encourage international and regional communities to move away from a solely criminal-justice-led response to organised crime, and towards a more comprehensive package of policies that can help mitigate the impact of organised crime, build local resilience and limit incentives for market participants. For more information about ENACT, visit


The European Union (EU) has placed security in Africa at the forefront of its international agenda, notably though its Pan-African Programme – the first programme of its kind to centre on development and cooperation, and covering Africa as a whole. One project under the Pan-African Programme is ENACT: Enhancing Africa’s capacity to respond more effectively to transnational organised crime. ENACT works to mitigate the impact of transnational organised crime (TOC) in Africa on development, governance, security and the rule of law. It achieves this in two ways: firstly, by building knowledge and offering evidence-based analysis of TOC in Africa, which will inform policy and enhance cooperation at the regional and continental level. Secondly, ENACT builds skills and capacity among key African stakeholders to better respond to transnational organised crime and mitigate its impact.

Index scores


The Index measures criminality and resilience for each country on a scale of 1 to 10. Countries’ criminality scores are made up of the average scores of fifteen criminal markets and five criminal actor types. Criminal market scores consider the scope, scale, value and reach (i.e. non-monetary impact) of each illicit economy. Criminal actor scores consider the structure, control and influence of each criminal actor type. The higher the criminality score a country has, the more severe its criminality conditions are.

Resilience scores are created by taking the average of 12 resilience indicators. These indicators represent a range of areas from which organised-crime response measures are developed – from politics and criminal justice, to economics and social fields. Unlike criminality, the higher the resilience score a country has, the more effective its response measures are to organised crime.

All Index scores have gone through extensive rounds of review and verification by experts on organised crime and by geographic experts, to ensure these numbers make sense in the real-world context in order to offer users the means to develop informed policies to counter organised crime.

Africa overall score for



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More about the Rankings

While organised crime and responses differ from country to country, organised crime is nevertheless a global problem. Under both the criminality and resilience components of the Index, countries are ranked based on their scores in order to offer users the option for comparative analysis across the African continent. Above all, country rankings are meant to start a conversation among policymakers and regional bodies, encouraging them to delve deeper into how and why organised crime affects their respective countries, and learn from one another in order to develop effective resilience strategies.

Country Profiles

Detailed data about the 54 African countries

In addition to the scores and rankings, the Organised Crime Index website allows users to explore country profiles that explain the context behind each country’s scores. Country profiles outline scores for each component (i.e. criminality and resilience), subcomponent (i.e. criminal markets and criminal actors) and indicators. The country profiles also provide background information on each specific country context, and highlight key trends based on expert assessments.

Pyramid height

The criminal actors score is represented by the Pyramid height on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Pyramid width

The criminal markets score is represented by the Pyramid base size on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Panel height

The resilience score is represented by the Panel height which can be identified by the side of the Panel.

Data Explorer

Make your own comparisons

The Organised Crime Index offers a holistic framework of a country’s overall relationship to organised crime. At the same time, its subcomponents and indicators allow users to disaggregate such information and determine correlations with various impact areas in any given country and/or region. Policymakers and other users are able to compare data geographically, substantively and, with future iterations of the Index, temporally, so that they can identify key trends.

Made by people


The Organised Crime Index was developed by a core team at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime: Laura Adal, Kosyo Ivanov, Nina Kaysser, Sarah Fares, Ebru Erkan, Chiara Gentili, Rumbi Matamba, Tuesday Reitano, and Mark Shaw. Index drafting was also supported by Catherine Moat, project manager for the ENACT project. Credit to the GI-TOC Publications and Multimedia team, Kristina Davidson and to Café for the design, visualisation and website. In the process of developing the third iteration of the tool, the team drew on the support and expertise of around 160 people and would like to express their sincere gratitude to colleagues, experts, reviewers and research assistants for their tireless efforts to expand on the 2021 Index to build a comprehensive and informative knowledge-sharing tool. Over a two-year period, experiences and informed opinions were exchanged, and lessons learned in order to capture data and information amid a unique set of global circumstances in 2022. It is with great hope that the tool allows for greater buy-in and collaboration in future iterations to build a larger evidence base from which stakeholders may draw in order to develop effective responses and ultimately successfully combat organised crime both in Africa and beyond.

Final opinions, findings and conclusions do not necessarily constitute or imply expert endorsements, nor do they necessarily represent their respective institutions.

Technical reference group

David Hammond
The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP)
Dr. Fiona M Underwood
Independent Statistical Researcher/Consultant
Georgios Antonopoulos
Northumbria University, Newcastle
Jan Hofmeyr
Jeremy McDermott
InSight Crime
Jonathan D Moyer, PhD
Director, Frederick S Pardee Center for International Futures
Karl Lallerstedt
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Dr. Leo S.F. Lin
Director, Institute for Asian Crime and Security
Dr. Michael Levi
Professor of Criminology, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
Dr. Patricio R Estévez-Soto
Lecturer in Security and Crime Science, University College London
Professor Marc Tassé
University of Ottawa, (School of Management and Law School)
Robin Cartwright
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Sara Batmanglich
Dr. Sharon Ingrid Kwok
Lecturer, Criminology, School of Social Sciences, Western Sydney University
Yannick Vuylsteke
Former Head of the Ibrahim Index of African Governance

Research Assistants

Adriana Reinecke
Aldo Liga
Aleksandra Hall
Alexander Scragg
Alexandra Smidman
Ali Zoubeidi
Angelica Gottlieb
Anita Gossmann
Annabelle Hahn
Anton MacFadyen
Arda Akartuna
Beatriz Andrea Quintero Caceres
Bram Van Wiele
Clare Profous
Claudia Wallner
Clemence Bigot
Daniela Sota Valdivia
Desirée Brandão
Edona Musliu
Fabio Seferi
Faith Tunde-Yara
Fakhri Mansour
Geng Li
Hannah Wallace
Harriet Cartwright
Heike Koehler
Ida-Maria Herdieckerhoff
Idriss Boumehdi
Intan Hadidinata
Izabella Vieira Lopes
Jack Moss
Jacob Thaler
James Adebayo
Jan Eijking
Joritse Onuwaje
Joy Teddy-Jimoh
Julius Kaka
Kristen Olver
Kyle Walter
Laura Brody
Laura Telenta
Leiysa Byrne
Lia Johansen
Luisa Maria Acosta
Maria Antonia Mier Portillo
Maria Galanakis
Mariana Stark
Mathias Bak
Matthew Spivack
Michael McLaggan
Mildred Rodríguez Bentron
Milica Radovic
Mohamad Sheikh
Nanar Hawach
Nicole El Helou
Nicole Helou
Nicole Kalczynski
Nikki Ramos
Olga Biegus
Olivia Baneth
Perkha Traxl
Rachel Mackenna
Rahel Kibru
Ross Field
Sara Canto
Stella Guesnet
Susan Knifed
Teresa Iglesias
Tim Spalding
Wilson Nderitu
Xavier Tayupanta


Abdiaziz Mahmoud Ismail
Akizi-Egnim Akala
Conflict, peace and security expert
Alan Martin
Head of Responsible Sourcing, LBMA
Alexandre Bish
Alice Fereday
Birahime Seck
Coordonnateur Général du Forum Civil, Section Sénégalaise Transparency International
Dr. Constanze Blum
Leipzig University
Dr Dalia Ghanem
Senior research analyst, expert on Algeria. European union institute for security studies (EUISS)
Dr Dany Franck A. Tiwa
Executive Director, African Centre for Crime and Security Studies (ACCSS)
Delfin Mocache Massoko
Dr Derica Lambrechts
Political Science, Stellenbosch University
Emilia Columbo
Professor Etannibi Alemika
Independent Researcher and Consultant in Criminology, Criminal Justice and Security
Eugène Arnaud Yombo Sembe, PhD
Governance, Peace and Security Specialist, Regional Project Manager, Francophone Africa, Africa Integrity Indicators.
Eugenio C Almeida
Research-Doctorate at the Center for International Studies, ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (CEI-IUL) and Associate Researcher at CINAMIL (Lisbon Military Academy)
Fabrice Kodjo Ebeh
Founder & President of ANCE-TOGO
Farai Maguwu
Executive Director of Centre for Natural Resource Governance
Fiona Mangan
Senior Fellow, United Nations University
Francis Dusabe
Co-Founder, Crime Watch Inc
Brig. General (rtd) Gaseikanngwe Peke
Independent Consultant, Botswana
Mr Georges Nicette
Senior lecturer (Social work/Sociology), Health and Social Care Department, University Of Seychelles (UNISEY)
Dr Gernot Klantschnig
Associate Professor in International Criminology, University of Bristol
Gregory Coleman
Security Expert on Liberia, Executive—Director, Sustainable Initiatives International (SII)
Dr Hana Ross
University of Cape Town
Hannes Jansen Van Vuren
Advisor, Financial Investigations, UNDOC Transnational Organised Crime, Illicit Trafficking and Terrorism Programme, Eastern Afica
Hugh Miles
Irvin Kinnes, Associate Professor
Centre of Criminology, University of Cape Town
Israel Octave Bayili
West Africa and Sahel Violent Extremism and Organize Crime Expert
Ivan Rush Mugisha
Iyadh Abid, Esq.
Attorney at Law (New York State bar) & Policy Consultant
Jamie Hitchen
Jenni Irish-Qhobosheane
Joelle Bassil
John Grobler
Jonathan Rozen
Independent Researcher
Julia Stanyard
Julian Rademeyer
Dr. Katharine Petrich
Assistant Professor, Middlebury Institute of International Studies
Ken Opala
Dr. Kingsley L. Madueke
Koalaga Oumarou Paul
Institut de Stratégie et de Relations Internationales (ISRI).
Kristof Titeca
Professor in Development Studies, Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp.
Kwesi Aning
Director, Faculty of Academic Affairs and Research, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center, Accra, Ghana
Lemine Ould Salem
Lina Khatib, PhD
Director, SOAS Middle East Institute, SOAS University of London
Luca Raineri
Lucia Bird
Dr. Lucy Hovil
Partner, Expectation State
Lyes Tagziria
Madeleine Ngeunga, Editor / Investigative journalist
Matt Herbert
Dr Maxime Ricard
West Africa Researcher, Institute of Strategic Research of the Military School (IRSEM).
Michael McLaggan
Mohamed Haji Ingiriis
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
Mouhamadou Kane
Muazu Umaru
Inter-Governmental Action Group against money laundering in West Africa (GIABA)
Muhammad al-Kashef
Human Rights Lawyer and Advocate, Consultant Researcher and Advisor, Watch The Med, Migreurop, Refugees' Solidarity Movement
Director Museba Journalism Project
Natheer Brown
Cyber Specialist
Pauline Verheij
Independent Consultant, EcoJust
Dr Phil René Oyono
Senior Policy Reseaech Fellow, Rights and Resources Initiative (Central Africa & Wahsington DC)
Randrianarisoa Riana Raymonde
Joirnalist-freelance Madagascar
Riccardo Fabiani
North Africa Director, the International Crisis Group
Richard Chelin
Richard Obinna Iroanya
University of Namibia, Department of Military of Science, School of Military Science, Windhoek
Sam Ratner
Policy director, Win Without War
Dr Sasha Jesperson
Selma el Obeid
Independent Researcher
Singo S. Mwachofi
Lecturer in Political Science, University of Nairobi, Kenya and Deputy Director, Security Research and Information Centre (SRIC), Nairobi.
Steven Broad
Independent Consultant
Dr. Tarela Juliet Ike
Senior Lecturer in Criminology and Policing, Teesside University
Thapelo Ndlovu
Independent Consultant
Thierry Vircoulon
Senior consultant, French Institute for International Affairs
Timo Shihepo
Researcher, and Freelance Investigative Journalist
Tomas Maule
Tomslin Samme-Nlar
Research Director, Gefona Digital Foundation (Cameroon)
Vel Moonien
Freelance journalist
William John Walwa